Causes and Complications of Twin or Multiple Pregnancy

Twin or Multiple Pregnancy: Causes and Complications

What is Multiple Pregnancy?

When more than one fetus simultaneously develops in the uterus, it is called multiple pregnancy.

What is Twin Pregnancy?

Simultaneous development of two fetuses in the uterus is called twin pregnancy.

What is Conjoined Twins?

When two fetus is connected to each other with some part of body is called conjoined twins.

Causes of twin or multiple pregnancy
Fig: Causes of twin or multiple pregnancy

Main Causes of Multiple Pregnancy:

Factors responsible in multiple features-

  • Idiopathic,
  • Iatrogenic: When ovulation inducing drugs are used,
  • Race: Highest among Negroes,
  • Hereditary,
  • Advancing age of the mother: Maximum in between 30-35 years,
  • Drugs: Ovulation inducing drugs,
  • Influence on parity.

Principles of Second Baby Delivery:

  • Must be done without undue prolongation.

Indications of cesarean section for the 2nd baby:

  • Larger second twin with noncephalic presentation.
  • Prompt closure of the cervix after the delivery of the first baby.

You can read: Classification or Types of Twin or Multiple Pregnancy

Complications of Multiple Pregnancy:

During pregnancy:

  • Nausea and vomiting,
  • Anemia,
  • Pre-ecalmpsia,
  • Hydramnios ,
  • Antepartum haemorrhage,
  • Malpresentation,
  • Preterm labour.

During labour:

  • Early rupture of the membranes and cord prolapsed,
  • Prolonged labour,
  • Increased operative interference,
  • Postpartum haemorrahage,
  • Subinvolution,
  • Lactation failure.

Fetal complication:

  • Miscarriage,
  • Prematurely,
  • Intrauterine death,
  • Fetal anomalies,
  • Asphyxia and stillbirth,
  • Pre-eclampsia,
  • Malpresentation,
  • Placental abruption.

Complications of Conjoined Twins:

There are four complications of conjoined twins:

  • Over distension,
  • Prolonged labour,
  • Obstructed labour,
  • Postpartum haemorrhage.

Differential Diagnosis of Multiple Pregnancy:

It includes-

  • Hydramnios,
  • Big baby,
  • Fiborid or ovarian tumour with pregnancy,
  • Ascites with pregnancy.

Pathogenesis of Twins:

Pathogenesis of Twins (Dizygotic twins):

  • It is resulting from fertilization of two ova by two sperms during a single ovarian cycle.

Pathogenesis of twins (Monozvgotic twins):

  • The twining may occur at different periods after fertilization.

More questions related to this article:

  1. What do you mean by multiple pregnancy?
  2. Define the term multiple pregnancy.
  3. Define multiple pregnancy.
  4. What do you mean by twin pregnancy?
  5. What are the causes of multiple pregnancy?
  6. What are the causes of twin pregnancy?
  7. Write down the pathogenesis of twins.
  8. Enumerate the factors responsible in multiple features.
  9. What do you mean by conjoined twins?
  10. What are the complications of conjoined twins?
  11. What is the principle of delivery of 2nd baby in case twin pregnancy?
  12. Write down the complications of multiple pregnancy.
  13. Write down the maternal and fetal complications of multiple pregnancy.
  14. Mention the complications of multiple pregnancy /twin pregnancy.
  15. Mention 6 maternal complications of twin pregnancy.
  16. What are the complications of twin in pregnancy and labour?
  17. Write down the differential diagnosis of multiple pregnancy or twin pregnancy.

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