Nursing Management or Interventions of Hypertension

Nursing Intervention or Management of Hypertension

What is Hypertension (HTN)?

Hypertension (HTN) is a worldwide health problem that affects about 25-40% of individuals. It is a major cardiovascular risk factor and it is associated with many cardiovascular complications (e-g., stroke, heart failure). The prevalence of raised blood pressure is highest in Africa, where it is 46% for both sexes combined. HTN can affect people at any age; women at child-bearing age are no exception.

Nursing management of hypertension
Fig: Nursing management of hypertension

Nursing Management of Hypertension:

Nursing Assessment:

Nursing assessment must involve careful monitoring of the blood pressure at frequent and routinely scheduled intervals.

  • If patient is on antihypertensive medications, blood pressure is assessed to determine the effectiveness and detect changes in the blood pressure.
  • Complete history should be obtained to assess for signs and symptoms that indicate target organ damage.
  • Pay attention to the rate, rhythm, and character of the apical and peripheral pulses.

You can read: Different Types and Causes of Hypertension (HTN)

Diagnosis:

Based on the assessment data, nursing diagnoses may include the following:

  1. Deficient knowledge regarding the relation between the treatment regimen and control of the disease process.
  2. Noncompliance with the therapeutic regimen related to side effects of the prescribed therapy.
  3. Risk for activity intolerance related to imbalance between oxygen supply and demand.
  4. Risk-prone health behavior related to condition requiring change in lifestyle.

Nursing Care Plan and Goals:

The major goals for a patient with hypertension are as follows:

  • Understanding of the disease process and its treatment.
  • Participation in a self-care program.
  • Absence of complications.
  • BP within acceptable limits for individual.
  • Cardiovascular and systemic complications prevented/minimized.
  • Disease process/prognosis and therapeutic regimen understood.
  • Necessary lifestyle/behavioral changes initiated.
  • Plan in place to meet needs after discharge.

Nursing Priorities:

  1. Maintain/enhance cardiovascular functioning.
  2. Prevent complications.
  3. Provide information about disease process/prognosis and treatment regimen.
  4. Support active patient control of condition.

Nursing Interventions:

The objective of nursing care focuses on lowering and controlling the blood pressure without adverse effects and without undue cost.

  • Encourage the patient to consult a dietitian to help develop a plan for improving nutrient intake or for weight loss.
  • Encourage restriction of sodium and fat.
  • Emphasize increase intake of fruits and vegetables.
  • Implement regular physical activity.
  • Advise patient to limit alcohol consumption and avoidance of tobacco.
  • Assist the patient to develop and adhere to an appropriate exercise regimen.

Evaluation:

At the end of the treatment regimen, the following are expected to be achieved:

  1. Maintain blood pressure at less than 140/90 mmHg with lifestyle modifications, medications, or both.
  2. Demonstrate no symptoms of angina, palpitations, or visual changes.
  3. Has stable BUN and serum creatinine levels.
  4. Has palpable peripheral pulses.
  5. Adheres to the dietary regimen as prescribed.
  6. Exercises regularly.
  7. Takes medications as prescribed and reports side effects.
  8. Measures blood pressure routinely.
  9. Abstains from tobacco and alcohol intake.
  10. Exhibits no complications.

Discharge and Home Care Guidelines:

Following discharge, the nurse should promote self-care and independence of the patient.

  • The nurse can help the patient achieve blood pressure control through education about managing blood pressure.
  • Assist the patient in setting goal blood pressures.
  • Provide assistance with social support.
  • Encourage the involvement of family members in the education program to support the patient’s efforts to control hypertension.
  • Provide written information about expected effects and side effects.
  • Encourage and teach patients to measure their blood pressures at home.
  • Emphasize strict compliance of follow-up checkup.

More questions related to this article:

  1. What do you mean by hypertension?
  2. What is the meaning of hypertension?
  3. Describe the nursing management of hypertension.
  4. Explain the nursing care plan of hypertension.
  5. Write down the nursing intervention of hypertension.

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