Major Causes and Prevention of Maternal Mortality and Morbidity in Bangladesh

Maternal Mortality and Morbidity: Causes and Prevention in Bangladesh

Definition of Mortality:

Mortality is the tern used for the number of people who died within a population. Mortality refers to the incidence of death or the number of deaths in a population.

Definition of Morbidity:

Morbidity refers to the state of being diseased or unhealthy within a population.

Definition of Maternal Death or Mortality:

According to WHO, Maternal mortality or maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.

Maternal mortality and morbidity
Fig: Maternal mortality and morbidity

Number of death of women during pregnancy or 42 days after termination of pregnancy, irrespective of gestational age and site due to any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from the incidental or accidental causes.

Definition of Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR):

It is the number of death of mother from pregnancy, delivery and puerperal causes during a calendar year per thousand of childbirth.

MMR Calculation:

We can calculate MMR by following formula-

Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR),

(Total number of female deaths due to complications of pregnancy, child birth or within 6 weeks of delivery from ‘puerperal cause in an area during a given year)
= ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… × 1000
                         Total number of live births in the same area in that year

Definition of Maternal Morbidity:

The WHO defines maternal morbidity as “a complication or illness that arises during gestation, birth or the puerperium, which affects the woman’s integrity, and physical or mental health, sometimes permanently. Causes can vary; some examples include obstetric complications, interventions, cultural practices or coercion”.

Major Causes of Maternal Death or Mortality in Bangladesh:

It includes the following:

1. Obstetric causes:

  • Toxemias of pregnancy,
  • Hemorrhage,
  • Infection,
  • Obstructed labour,
  • Septic abortion.

2. Non-obstetric causes:

  • Severe anaemia.
  • Associated diseases i.e.- cardiac, renal, hepatic, metabolic & infectious.
  • Malignancy.
  • Accidents.

3. Social causes/factors:

  • Age at childbirth parity,
  • Too close pregnancies,
  • Malnutrition,
  • Poverty,
  • Illiteracy & 1gnorane,
  • Delivery by untrained dais,
  • Poor environmental sanitation,
  • Poor communications & transport facilities,
  • Social customs – etc.

Preventive and Social Measures for Reducing Maternal Mortality and Morbidity:

Any attempts to lower MMR must take in consideration the following measures:

  • Early registration of pregnancy.
  • At least 4 antenatal check-up.
  • Dietary supplementation, including correction of anaemia.
  • Prevention of infection and hemorrhage during puerperium.
  • Prevention of complications e.g. eclampsia, malpresentation, ruptured uterus.
  • Treatment of medical conditions e.g. hypertension, diabetes, TB etc.
  • Antimalarial & tetanus prophylaxis.
  • Clean delivery practice.
  • Provision of local trained dais & female health workers.
  • Institutional deliveries for woman with bad obstetric history and risk factors.
  • Promotion of family planning- to control the number of children to not more than two and spacing birth.
  • Identification of every maternal death, and searching for its cause.
  • Safe abortion services.

More questions related to this article:

  1. Define mortality and morbidity.
  2. What do you mean by maternal mortality?
  3. What is maternal mortality?
  4. Define maternal death/mortality.
  5. Define MMR.
  6. What is MMR (Maternal Mortality Rate)?
  7. Define maternal morbidity.
  8. What do you mean by maternal morbidity?
  9. What are the causes of maternal mortality in BD?
  10. Write down the common causes of maternal mortality in Bangladesh.
  11. Mention the major causes of maternal death in Bangladesh?
  12. Write down the predisposing factors of maternal death/ mortality in Bangladesh.
  13. How can we prevent maternal mortality and morbidity in Bangladesh?
  14. What are the preventive and social measures to prevent maternal mortality in Bangladesh?
  15. How will you prevent maternal mortality in our country?
  16. Describe the strategies will you take as a nurse to prevent maternal mortality in Bangladesh.

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