Sign, Symptoms of Schizophrenia | Risk Factors of Schizophrenia

Sign, Symptoms and Risk Factors of Schizophrenia

What is Schizophrenia?

The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception and by inappropriate or blunted effect. The most intimate thoughts, feelings and acts are often felt to be known or shared by others; explanatory delusions may develop, to the effect that natural or supernatural forces are at work to influence the affected individual’s thoughts and actions in ways that are often bizarre.

Clinical Features or Symptoms of Schizophrenia:

There are four groups of symptoms:

A. Positive symptoms:

  • Delusions;
  • Hallucinations,
  • Bizarre behavior.,
  • Suspicious,
  • Over activity,
  • Aggression,
  • Agitation and
  • Hostility.

B. Negative symptoms:

  • Apathy,
  • Avolition (lack of will power),
  • Social withdrawal,
  • Diminished emotional responsiveness,
  • Blunted affect,
  • Stereotyped thinking,
  • Lack of spontaneity.

C. Cognitive symptoms:

  • Memory problems,
  • Difficulty in thinking,
  • Difficulty in planning,
  • Inadequate decision making,
  • Improper judgment,
  • Affective symptoms,
  • Depression,
  • Guilt,
  • Anxiety,
  • Perplex emotions.

D. Other symptoms:

  1. Thought disturbance is the predominant disturbance in schizophrenia.
  2. Persons suffering from schizophrenia will have poor personal hygiene; sleep disturbance, behavior problem like bizarre mannerisms, negativism, stupor or at times excitement.
  3. Lack of insight, i.e. not aware that he or she is suffering from an illness. It is one of the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia can be categorized by following:

1. First rank symptoms:

  • Audible thoughts,
  • Voices arguing or discussing or both,
  • Voices commenting,
  • Somatic Passivity experiences,
  • Thought withdrawal and other experiences of influenced thought,
  • Thought broadcasting,
  • Delusional perceptions,
  • All other experiences involving volition made affects, and made impulses.

2. Second rank symptoms:

  • Other disorders of perception,
  • Sudden delusional ideas,
  • Perplexity,
  • Depressive and euphoric mood changes,
  • Feelings of emotional impoverishment,
  • Several others as well.

Risk Factors of Schizophrenia:

Although the precise cause of schizophrenia isn’t known, certain factors seem to increase the risk of developing or triggering schizophrenia, including:

  • Having a family history of schizophrenia.
  • Increased immune system activation, such as from inflammation or autoimmune diseases.
  • Older age of the father.
  • Some pregnancy and birth complications, such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins or viruses that may impact brain development.
  • Taking mind-altering (psychoactive or psychotropic) drugs during teen years and young adulthood.

What are the Changes Occur in Brain in Schizophrenia?

Brain changes occur in schizophrenia:

  1. Reduce size of cortical grey matter.
  2. Development of cerebral asymmetry.
  3. Enlargement of lateral and third ventricles.
  4. Decreased volume of brain.
  5. Temporal lobes become smaller.

Good Prognostic Criteria of Schizophrenia:

It includes the following:

  • Short episode,
  • Sudden onset,
  • Prominent affective symptoms,
  • Married,
  • Paranoid type of illness,
  • Good social relationship,
  • Good work record,
  • Good personality,
  • Compliance with treatment.

Poor prognostic criteria of schizophrenia:

  • Long episode,
  • Negative symptoms,
  • Insidious onset,
  • Previous psychiatric illness,
  • Younger age of onset,
  • Male gender,
  • Abnormal personality,
  • Social isolation,
  • Poor therapeutic compliance.

More questions related to this article:

  1. Define schizophrenia.
  2. What is schizophrenia?
  3. What do you mean by schizophrenia?
  4. What is the definition of schizophrenia?
  5. Write down the risk factors of schizophrenia?
  6. Mention the clinical features of schizophrenia?
  7. What are the first rank symptoms of schizophrenia?
  8. Write down the positive sign symptoms of schizophrenia.
  9. Write down the positive and negative symptoms/signs of schizophrenia.
  10. Write down the negative sign symptoms of schizophrenia.
  11. What are the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia?
  12. Write down the good prognosis of schizophrenia.
  13. Write down the poor prognosis of schizophrenia.

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