Different Causes and Types of Schizophrenia

Types and Causes of Schizophrenia

What is Schizophrenia?

A group of disorders manifested by fundamental disturbances or distortions in thinking, mood and behaviour, last for at least a month of active phase symptoms like delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour, negative symptoms such as shallow or flat affect, alogia or avolition and incongruous mood.

Acute schizophrenia may present with disturbed behaviour, marked delusions, hallucinations and disordered thinking, or with insidious social withdrawal and less obvious delusions and hallucinations.

Types and causes of schizophrenia
Fig: Types and causes of schizophrenia

Disturbance in thinking is marked by alteration of concept formation, which may lead to misinterpretation of reality, hallucinations and delusions. Mood changes include ambivalent, constricted, inappropriate emotional responsiveness, or blunted effect. Lack of empathy with others disturbance in behavior may be withdrawn, regressive and bizarre.

Classification of Schizophrenia According to (ICD-10: Fro-F20 – F29):

  • F20- Schizophrenia,
  • F20.0- Paranoid Schizophrenia,
  • F20.1- Hebephrenic Schizophrenia,
  • F20.2- Catatonic Schizophrenia,
  • F20.3- Undifferentiated Schizophrenia,
  • F20.4- Post schizophrenic depression,
  • F20.5- Residual Schizophrenia,
  • F20.6- Simple Schizophrenia,
  • F20.8- Other Schizophrenia,
  • F20.9- Unspecified Schizophrenia.

Or,

  1. Paranoid schizophrenia,
  2. Catatonic schizophrenia,
  3. Hebephrenic schizophrenia (Disorganized type),
  4. Residual schizophrenia,
  5. Undifferentiated schizophrenia,
  6. Simple schizophrenia.

Classifications of Schizophrenia:

  1. Acute schizophrenia.
  2. Chronic schizophrenia.

Another classification:

A. Positive schizophrenia (Type-I):

Is characterized by acute onset, prominent delusions and hallucinations, normal brain structure, a good response to neuroleptics.

B. Negative schizophrenia (Type-II):

Is characterized by a slow, insidious onset, a relative absence of acute symptoms and the presence of apathy social withdrawal /lack of motivation, underlying brain structure abnormalities, and poor neuroleptic response.

Main Causes of Schizophrenia:

Factors

Example

Influence of Neurotransmitters

  • Dopamine, serotonins have influence in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
  • Neither glutamate, nor epinephrine and gamma amino butyric acid will also have effect over the causation of schizophrenia.

Deficiency

  • Vitamin B1, B6, B12, C

Genetic

  • Uniovular twins, monozygotic twins. Schizophrenia is very common.
  • Relatives of client are commonly suffered with disease.
  • Transmission is probably through one or more autosomal recessıve genes.
  • Parents to offsprings though genes.
  • Most of the chromosomes (5, 11, 18-long arm; 19 short arm) have been affected in schizophrenic cases.

Neuro developmental factors

  • Viral infections affecting antenatal mothers (in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy).
  • Any conditions that injure or impair the developing brain causes schizophrenia.

Neuro psychological factors

  • Organic brain dysfunction or damage, e.g. frontal lobe atrophy.
  • Brain infections,
  • Poison,
  • Trauma,
  • Metabolic disorders.

Family factors

  • High level of expressed emotions in the family, e.g. hostility, over indulgence, critical attitude weak and submissive father, dominant and aggressive mother, improper communication leading to double blind and contradictory messages.
  • Parent blaming
  • Broken homes, disorganized families or rejection by the parents.
  • Over protection.
  • Deprived parent child relationship.
  • Pathogenic family interaction.

Environmental factors

  • Stressful environmental influence.
  • Traumatic experiences.

Psychological factors

  • Impaired ego functioning,
  • Intra-psychic conflicts,
  • Unstable persons,
  • Low IQ levels,
  • Exposed to crisis situations.

Social factors

  • Community disorganization,
  • Industrialization,
  • Strained interpersonal relationship,
  • Urbanization,
  • Defective interaction,
  • Social isolation; deprived social network,
  • Pathological communication, e.g. Double bound communication,
  • Acculturation; minority status.

Personality

  • Schizoid personality or aesthenie personality type a social, shy, reserved, eccentric, oversensitive, fond of books, having very few friends.

Disturbances

  • Endocrinal, metabolic, biochemical disturbances.

Life events

  • Transitional periods in life, e.g. pregnancy, childbirth.

More questions related to this article:

  • Define schizophrenia.
  • What is schizophrenia?
  • What do you mean by schizophrenia?
  • What is the definition of schizophrenia?
  • What are types of schizophrenia?
  • Mention the classification of schizophrenia.
  • What are the causes of schizophrenia?
  • Write down the causes of schizophrenia?

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