Treatment and Complications of Thalassaemia in Pregnancy

Thalassemia in Pregnancy: Treatment, Complications, Risk Factors

Definition of Thalassemia: 

Thalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries Oxygen. The disorder results in large numbers of red blood cells being destroyed, which leads to anemia.

Thalassemia in pregnancy
Fig: Thalassemia in pregnancy

Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production. Symptoms depend on the type and can vary from none to severe.

You can read: Causes and Complications of Twin or Multiple Pregnancy

Treatments of Mild Thalassemia in Pregnancy:

Signs and symptoms are usually mild with thalassemia minor and little, if any, treatment is needed. Occasionally, need a blood transfusion, particularly after surgery, after having a baby or to help manage thalassemia complications.

People with severe beta-thalassemia will need blood transfusions. And because this treatment can cause iron overload, they will also need treatment to remove excess iron. An oral medication called deferasirox (Exjade, Jadenu) can help remove the excess iron.

Treatments for moderate to severe thalassemia may include:

1. Frequent blood transfusions:

More-severe forms of thalassemia often require frequent blood transfusions, possibly every few weeks. Over time, blood transfusions cause a buildup of iron in blood, which can damage heart, liver and other organs. To help body get rid of the extra iron, women may need to take medications that rid body of extra iron.

2. Stem cell transplant:

Also called a bone marrow transplant, a stem cell transplant may be an option in select cases, including children born with severe thalassemia. It can eliminate the need for lifelong blood transfusions and drugs to control iron overload.

3. Manage fluid overload.

4. Iron chelating therapy (Deferral).

5. 24 h urine collection after chelating therapy to estimate the amount of iron excreted.

6. Reassure the orange color is normal.

Complications of Thalassaemia in Pregnancy:

Possible complications of thalassemia include:

  • Iron overload,
  • Infection.

In cases of severe thalassemia, the following complications can occur:

  • Bone deformities,
  • Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly),
  • Slowed growth rates,
  • Heart problems.

Risk Factors of Thalassemia in Pregnancy:

All the risk factors of thalassaemia in pregnancy include:

  1. Homozygous form of the disease,
  2. Pathologic fractures,
  3. Heredity,
  4. Spontaneous mutation,
  5. Hyperplasia of bone marrow,
  6. Changes of facial bone structure,
  7. Severe anemia,
  8. Negative body image,
  9. Discoloration of skin due to iron deposits,
  10. Absence of β-chain synthesis in Hb production,
  11. Autosomal recessive disorder.

More questions related to this article:

  • What is thalassaemia?
  • Define thalassemia.
  • What do you mean by thalassaemia?
  • Write a short note on thalassaemia in preganancy.
  • Briefly discuss about thalassaemia in preganancy.
  • What is the definition of thalassaemia?
  • Describe the treatments of thalassemia.
  • What is the treatment of thalassemia?
  • Write a short note on thalassaemia in preganancy treatment.
  • What are the complications of thalassemia in pregnancy?
  • List the major complications of thalassemia in pregnancy.
  • List all the risk factors of thalassaemia in pregnancy.
  • Mention the risk factors of thalassemia in pregnancy.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.